According to science, a human body can survive without food for 8-21 days. But, a human body cannot survive without water for more than 3 days.

Water is significantly essential for humans and animals. Everyone knows that water is important. But do you know why? Water forms a significant amount of the human body. 

Water is responsible for –

  • Clearing out waste from the human body
  • Maintaining body temperature
  • Improves brain functioning
  • Producing saliva
  • Enabling normal functioning of kidneys
  • Help for good digestion

Water is used in cooking food items. On the other hand, several beverages include a small amount of water too. There is no replacement for water.


Now, you might know the significance of water. Water is vital but it is available only in limited quantities on earth. Additionally, increased urbanisation and industrialisation have increased water pollution. Water is essential and bad or polluted water can worsen health in place of benefitting to your wellbeing. We have listed the top 10 impurities that bad water can have and their ill effects:-

10. The unseen and most deadly impurity of microorganisms- You would have definitely studied the basic concept of living microorganisms in your science textbooks. Such harmful microorganisms are present in drinking water that makes it impure. There are several kinds of microorganisms like protozoa, algae and other bacteria and viruses. These microorganisms are a basic source and medium for transmitting water-borne diseases like typhoid, diarrhoea etc. Parasite, marine bacteria, blue-green algae, salmonella typhi etc are the most widespread microorganisms found in impure and contaminated water. Special ultrafilters with minute pores are devised to remove bacteria and viruses from the water. Water is treated with chlorine to get rid of such minute contaminants.

9. The most popular impurities in drinking water are chemical impurities- The most common form of contaminants from pollution is chemical impurities. There are numerous impurities like Chromium and selenium that can be deadly. There are some nutrients present in drinking water naturally. But, chemical impurities above a limited quantity can lead to serious health diseases like reproductive diseases, cancer, gastrointestinal infections, allergies etc. Water purifiers are specifically designed to remove the man-made chemical impurities of nitrogen, salts, pesticides, bleach toxins etc. It is seen that developing countries have no proper system to treat polluted water and chemical impurities are largely found in their water bodies.

8. The development in technology has introduced the concept of Radioactive wastes- The advancement of technology has introduced the concept of radioactive waste. The world has witnessed the ill effects of radioactive exposure on human health after the nuclear bomb blast in Japan. Radioactive wastes are more harmful to health because their small quantities are enough to be fatal. Nuclear and radioactive operations, mining and refining produces these water and impurities that get added into the water. Extreme exposure to these radioactive substances can cause burns, allergies, blood infections and cancerous diseases. RO purifiers specialise in removing these radioactive wastes from drinking water.

7. The secret impurity of dissolved gas is not known to many- Every student who has studied science would know that the chemical formula for drinking water is H2O. It means 2 atoms of hydrogen and 1 atom of oxygen. There are some natural quantities of gases like oxygen dissolved in water. But, excess oxygen or other gases like nitrogen can make the water dangerous for drinking purposes. These impurities of dissolved gases are added to water by water pollution or soil pollution. So it also makes the water harmful to the environment, trees and other animals. Therefore, it is very significant to remove unnatural dissolved gases from water and purify drinking water.

6. You might know about the scientific concept of colloids- Colloids are different from natural aspects in water because they are visible in scattered light. Colloids can absorb necessary ions and cause water pollution. It is important to get rid of colloidal impurities in drinking water and it is fit for drinking. Colloidal impurities can include organic waste or amino acids. When water naturally flows from streams it comes in contact with sand, stones and other natural materials that make it impure. A speedy way to remove the impurities in drinking water is the coagulation-flocculation process.

Also read: Top 10 Harmful and Dangerous Effects of Coffee on Health

5. Hard metals can lead to the hardness of drinking water- Have you heard about the concept of hard water? The chemical impurities of calcium and magnesium and other metals in water make water unfit to drink and worsen human health. When these metals split into the water, they make it hard and bad for health. You cannot see these hard metals with naked eyes. It’s visible in special scientific tests.  Hard water is used for tough cleaning work. So, drinking such hard water is difficult to digest along with other health hazards. Most of the tap water found in developing countries is hard water that is not good for health.

4. The presence of Heavy chemicals is the main reason for the bitter taste in water- The earth’s crust is full of metals that can be easily dissolved in ground drinking water. But, metals can be harmful to other substances. Heavy or hard metals are present in natural quantities but their amount at toxic level can become. health hazard. Metals in water like cobalt, zinc, mercury, selenium, lead, nickel etc can be poisonous even in small amounts. They are the main cause behind organ failure or cancer. The United Nations has announced the presence of heavy chemicals in the water as a public concern issue. In the USA, water with heavy chemicals is responsible for a big amount of deaths every year.

3. The presence of Animal waste is unacceptable to anyone in drinking water – Just like human ways, animal waste gets dissolved in water that includes an abundance of impurities. When water naturally flows down from streams then the animal waste is added to water. But, human negligence is another reason that adds animal waste to drinking water. People commonly take their animals to bathe in water, surface runoff, erosion and direct discharge that can be dangerous to human health. 

2. The external addition of suspended impurities– Suspended impurities can be sourced from animals, plants, humans or many other aspects. Suspended impurities get added to water naturally or through direct and indirect discharges. It can be added to the original itself or during the course. The common form of suspended impurities is sand, stones, mud, dirt, and other silt that affects the quality of water. Since these impurities settle at the bottom of the water, they can be removed with water filters and other purifiers.

1. The carelessness of humans can impurity of human waste in drinking water- The biggest cause behind dissolving these impurities mentioned above is human negligence and carelessness. There is a taken for granted attitude over easily accessible resources.  This attitude has increased the level of water pollution that is, in turn, harming humans and the environment. Similarly, human wastes are added to the drinking water with other contaminants. They cannot be removed by hand. The most reliable way to get rid of them is scientific processes for filtration or water purification devices. Human waste has taken away the concept of bright and clear water that added to the beauty of nature.

These 10 impurities in drinking water can severely damage the quality of water. There are some natural impurities in water that are not extremely harmful. But, the externally added impurities can only worsen the health. There is a popular saying that the reason for maybe the third world war will be water. Since early times, Water has controlled the possibility of human settlement and it has been a major reason for tensions between two countries. Cities, villages and tribes always settle near a water source. The absence of good drinking water can be deadly. On the other hand, impure water can be equally harmful to human health. Due to this reason, there are several devices to remove impurities from water to make it pure for drinking purposes. Aquaguards, water purifiers and techniques like distillation and filtering are commonly used in every household.